Thursday, March 31, 2011

Best Practices in Bullying Prevention

Best Practices in Bullying Prevention

This list of Best Practices is taken with permission from and is based partly on  Limber, S. P. (2004, Winter), What works and doesn't work in bullying prevention and intervention. Student Assistance Journal. 16-19.  

1. Focus on the social environment of the school. In order to reduce bullying, it is important to change the social climate of the school and the social norms with regards to bullying. This requires the efforts of everyone in the school environment-teachers, administrators, counselors, school nurses, other non-teaching staff (such as bus drivers, custodians, cafeteria workers, and/or school librarians), parents, and students.

2. Assess bullying at your school. Adults are not always very good at estimating the nature and prevalence of bullying at their school. As a result, it can be quite useful to administer an anonymous questionnaire to students about bullying. A number of bullying prevention programs listed in the Resource Kit include these measures.

3. Obtain staff and parent buy-in and support for bullying prevention. Bullying prevention should not be the sole responsibility of any single individual at a school. To be most effective, bullying prevention efforts require buy-in from the majority of the staff and from parents. However, bullying prevention efforts should still begin even if immediate buy-in from all isn't achievable. Usually, more and more supporters will join the effort once they see what it's accomplishing.

4. Form a group to coordinate the school's bullying prevention activities. Bullying prevention efforts seem to work best if they are coordinated by a representative group from the school. This coordinating team might include:
  • an administrator
  • a teacher from each grade
  • a member of the non-teaching staff
  • a school counselor or other school-based mental health professional, and
    a parent
The team should meet regularly to review findings from the school's survey; plan specific bullying prevention activities; motivate staff, students, and parents; and ensure that the efforts continue over time.

5. Provide training for school staff in bullying prevention. All administrators, faculty and staff at a school should be trained in bullying prevention and intervention.BIn-service training can help staff members to better understand the nature of bullying and its effects, how to respond if they observe bullying, and how to work with others at the school to help prevent bullying.

6. Establish and enforce school rules and policies related to bullying. Developing simple, clear rules about bullying can help to ensure that students are aware of adults' expectations that they not bully others and that they help students who are bullied. School rules and policies should be posted and discussed with students and parents. Appropriate positive and negative consequences should be developed.

7. Increase adult supervision in "hot spots" for bullying. Bullying tends to thrive in locations where adults are not present or are not watchful. Adults should look for creative ways to increase adult presence in locations that students identify as "hot spots."

8. Intervene consistently and appropriately when you see bullying. Observed or suspected bullying should never be ignored by adults. All school staff should learn effective strategies to intervene on-the-spot to stop bullying. Staff members also should be designated to hold sensitive follow-up meetings with students who are bullied and (separately) with students who bully. Staff members should involve parents whenever possible.

9. Devote some class time to bullying prevention. Students can benefit if teachers set aside a regular period of time (e.g., 20–30 minutes each week or every other week) to discuss bullying and improving peer relations. These meetings can help teachers to keep their fingers on the pulse of students' concerns, allow time for discussions about bullying and the harms that it can cause, and provide tools for students to address bullying problems. Anti-bullying messages also can be incorporated throughout the school curriculum.

10. Continue these efforts. There should be no "end date" for bullying prevention activities. Bullying prevention should be continued over time and woven into the fabric of the school environment.

Bullying Prevention Research, Bullying Studies, Stop Bullying Research

Bullying Prevention Research

Note: to submit books, articles, research or other materials to be considered for inclusion in this list, please email
  • - a connection to bullying prevention resources worldwide
  • Student Reports of Bullying -Results from the 2001 School Crime Supplement to the United States National Crime Victimization Survey
  • Arseneault, L., Walsh, E , Trzesniewski, K, Newcombe, R, Caspi, A. and Moffitt, T.E. (2006). Abstract: Bullying Victimization Uniquely Contributes to Adjustment Problems in Young Children A Nationally Representative Cohort Study PEDIATRICS Vol. 118 No. 1 July 2006, pp. 130-138 (doi:10.1542/peds.2005-2388) FULL TEXT
  • Baumeister, R. F., Bushman, B. J., & Campbell, W. K. (2000). Self-esteem, narcissism, and aggression: Does violence result from low self-esteem or threatened egotism? Current Directions in Psychological Science, 9, 26-29.
  • Baumeister, R. F. (2001). Violent pride: Do people turn violent because of self-hate, or self-love? Scientific American, 284(4), 96-101.
  • Baumeister, R. F., Twenge, J. M., & Nuss, C. (2002). Effects of social exclusion on cognitive processes: Anticipated aloneness reduces intelligent thought. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 83, 817-827.
  • Bond L., Carlin, J. B., Thomas, L., Rubin, K., & Patton, G. (2001). Does bullying cause emotional problems? A prospective study of young teenagers. British Medical Journal, 323(7311), 480-484.
  • Brown, L.M. (2003) Girlfighting: Betrayal and Rejection Among Girls, New York University Press; also see her new curriculum "From Adversaries to Allies: A Curriculum for Change"
  • Buhs, E., Ladd, G., and Herald, S. Peer Exclusion and Victimization: Processes That Mediate the Relation Between Peer Group Rejection and Children's Classroom Engagement and Achievement, Journal of Educational Psychology, Vol.98 No.1
  • Craig, W., & Pepler, D. (2000) Observations of Bullying in the Playground and in the Classroom School Psychology International 21(1) pp22-37, Feb2000
  • Making a Difference in Bullying - by Wendy Craig and Debra Pepler - from the Canadian pioneers of bullying prevention research.
  • Crick, N. (2002). Bullies: Ignore Them and They Won’t Go Away. University of Minnesota Institute of Child Development, University of Minnesota College of Education and Human Development. Vol. 18, No. 2
  • Glew GM et al. Bullying, Psychosocial Adjustment, and Academic Performance in Elementary School. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2005;159:1026-1031.
  • Juvonen, J., Graham, S., Schuster, M. (2003, December). Bullying among young adolescents: The strong, the weak, and the troubled. Pediatrics, 112: 1231-1237
  • Kimmel, Michael and Mahler, Matthew (2003). Adolescent Masculinity, Homophobia, and Violence: Random School Shootings, 1982-2001. The American Behavioral Scientist, 46(10): 1439-58
  • Kohm, A. Little, M., Rich, L. (2006) "What Do Bystanders Do When Children Are Being Bullied . . . And Why Do They Do It?" Chapin Hall
  • Limber, S. P. (2002). Bullying among Children and Youth. Proceedings of the Educational Forum on Adolescent Health: Youth Bullying. Chicago: American Medical Association
  • Limber, S. P., Small, M.A (2003) State Laws and Policies to Address Bullying in Schools, School Psychology Review, Vol. 32, 2003
  • Limber, S. P. (2003). Efforts to address bullying in U.S. Schools. Journal of Health Education, 34, S-23-S-29
  • McEvoy, A (2005) Teachers Who Bully Students
  • Mullin-Rindler, Nancy (2003). Relational aggression and bullying: It's more than just a girl thing. Center for Research on Women, Wellesley MA. Wellesley Centers for Women Working Paper Series, 2003. Working Paper #408.
  • Mynard, H., Joseph, S., & Alexander, J. (2000). "Peer Victimization and Post Traumatic Stress in Adolescence." Personality and Individual Differences, 29, 815-821
  • Nansel, T.R., Overpeck, M., Pilla, R.S., Ruan, W. J., Simons-Morton, B., Scheidt, P. (2001). Bullying behaviors among US youth: Prevalence and association with psychosocial adjustment. The Journal of the American Medical Association, 285, 2094-2100
  • Olweus, D. Bullying at School (Blackwell Publishers, 1993, ISBN #0-631-19241-7)
  • Olweus, D. (2003). A profile of bullying at school. Educational Leadership, 60(6), 12-17
  • Roland, E. & Galloway, D. (2002). Classroom influences on bullying. Educational Research, 44(3), 299-312
  • Yoon, J. & Kerber, K. (2003). Bullying: Elementary teachers' attitudes and intervention strategies. Research in Education, Issue 69, 27-35

Bullying Prevention Resources, Information, Articles, Websites, Books, Organizations, Videos, Programs, Policy





Materials for bullying prevention programs

Reports from organizations

Policy guidelines


  • Let's Get Real - A video full of the words and thoughts of middle school students. Good focus on teacher and bystander action. Highly recommended for teacher training and for work with bystanders.
  • Return to Top


Bully Prevention: Kids Taught Smart Martial Arts With Verbal Judo Self Defense to Resolve Conflicts Peacefully

Bully Prevention: Kids Taught Smart Martial Arts

| March 31, 2011 | Arizona Bullying Prevention |

(Arizona Bullying Prevention)- Law Enforcement, Military and Bodyguard trainer John Nottingham has decided to incorporate martial arts into the school safety program for elementary, middle and high school students in Phoenix, Arizona. Children are taught self-defense strategies, as well as conflict resolution skills in the class. Read the blog article below to learn more about this bullying prevention initiative.

Children learn verbal judo, self-defense to resolve conflicts peacefully

As bullying, safety concerns and teen suicide continue to appear as news headlines some parents are taking a different approach to preparing their children for school and life. Along with the 911 system, learning to swim, now parents are adding in abduction prevention, self defense from depression, obesity, diabetes and bullying. They are doing this at USA Martial Arts Phoenix.

Bullying is the most common form of violence in American society according to The National Association of School Psychologists. Bullying affects 15 percent to 30 percent of students as either bullies or victims.

While many schools have in place zero-tolerance rules against bullying, but these don't always deflect bully attacks. That's where martial arts Master John Nottingham comes in.

Nottingham, an Army Airborne veteran and 30 year martial arts and self defense trainer, has developed a program called "BULLY PROOF VEST" that prepares children of varying ages to deal with bullying and other safety issues they might face, such as abductions and abuse.

Through a two-hour class that teaches verbal tactics and strategies (as opposed to strictly physical self-defense moves), Nottingham's "Bully Proof Vest" self-defense and escape school course gives children confidence to resolve self defense and safety issues in and out of the classroom.

Bully deflectors

  • Your strongest weapon is your voice
  • Your secret weapon is confidence
  • Your tool is being firm

Use the six powerful protectors:
  1. Ignore the comment.
  2. Stay away from the bully.
  3. Agree with the bully.
  4. Change the subject.
  5. Refuse to fight.
  6. Get an adult.

Thursday, March 24, 2011

Bully Proof Training - Arizona Bullying Prevention Initiative - A Mission For Peace of Mind


Arizona Bullying Intervention Initiative - The AZ Bullying Prevention Project is 
dedicated to improving the education and training of bullying dynamics and to 
reducing and resolving conflicts peacefully.  Furthermore we work to provide 
parents and children the peace-of-mind that comes from feeling prepared to 
effectively deal with situations which may lead to abuse or violence.  

The only research based model by professional protectors that teaches strategies to parents, teachers and children on how to effectively handle situations which may lead to abuse.  

The Arizona Bullying Intervention Initiative's purpose is to work with local agencies, school administration, teachers, parents and children to address bullying in our schools and community through education and training.

We provide advanced educational programs and resources to children, parents, educational institutions, companies and organizations. We make available effective learning and educational resources in order to help children, parents and teachers deal effectively and positively with the act of bullying and its potential long-lasting negative consequences.

Bullying is often considered the number one non-academic issue that most educators face today, yet many educators have never taken a Professional course about bullying during their teacher training at university or during their time in the field. For those who do, most never receive training from protection professionals that deal with researched based solutions for last resort physical intervention.  Put simply, most other bullying programs leave out critical, self defense steps - when prevention fails.  

According to recent research, Bullying is typically one of the top education concerns of many parents. Scared kids can never reach their potential as learners in school or as citizens of our communities. Learn how to change this! Take one of our unconventional, research-based courses, or view one of our presentations.

We offer presentations about bullying, cyberbullying, cyberparenting, conflict avoidance, tactical communication (verbal judo), diffusion and de-escalation, evacuation escape tactics, workplace harassment and related issues for youth, parents, educators and the general public. All of our presentations are multimedia, interactive presentation format and conducted in person, are age specific and will dovetail with policies, procedures and liability guidelines.

Arizona Bullying Intervention Initiative
USA Martial Arts Phoenix
4731 E. Greenway Rd Suite 9-10
Phoenix, Arizona 85032
Telephone 602.896.8721

Arizona Bullying Prevention blog
USA Martial Arts Website

Encouraging the good, the noble, the powerful and positive in children. 

Here is the blog dedicated to the subject of bullying in Arizona. Parents, teachers and children can find information, statistics and resources to arm them with knowledge and techniques to successfully deal with bullying.

Bully Proof Vest - Bully Solutions Workshops & Kids Camps

Free Bully / Victim Proofing workshop by appointment at USA Martial Arts Phoenix at Tatum & Greenway in Phoenix/Scottsdale/PV. To register, simply email or call 602-896-8721. It's fully sponsored by Nottingham Sword & Shield Security/ and USA Martial Arts Phoenix.

Phoenix Martial Arts School Teaches Children Free Bullying Prevention

Arizona Parents Praise Phoenix Martial Arts School Teaching Children Free Bullying Prevention 

By Arizona Bullying Prevention Project

Attention Parents:

Bring your children to this USA Martial Arts Phoenix and Black Belt Bullying Prevention Specialists will teach boys and girls how to deal with bullying - FREE.

WHO: USA Martial Arts Phoenix | The Arizona Bullying Prevention Project

USA Martial Arts Phoenix just completed a month of complementary Bullying Prevention training for Phoenix Children at their Phoenix Martial Arts school. USA Martial Arts Phoenix along with Nottingham Sword & Shield Security are partners in the Arizona Bullying Intervention Initiative Bullying Prevention Program. Their mission is to provide unconventional Bullying Prevention advice, training and resources and teach children how to deal with bullying peacefully in an effective way.
They provided complimentary training to any children in the Phoenix community this past month. However, their commitment does not end there. They are now offering free bullying prevention lessons to any Phoenix child. 


They will teach their highly effective 5 step approach which includes techniques to:
o Detect bullying behavior early
o Deter being selected for bullying behavior
o Diffuse potential bullying situations
o De-escalate bullying behavior
o Defend bullying abuse and attacks

USA Martial Arts teaches a brand of bullying prevention that has been proven with thousands of students over the past 25 years. It is a research based method that, unlike other programs, does not leave out the last resort of defending yourself from physical abuse. The Arizona Bullying Prevention Program BULLY PROOF VEST program gives children the tools to cover and evacuate, just like a bodyguard. 

This BULLY PREVENTION PROGRAM also encourages by standers to be courageous and heroic. Children are taught that if they see bullying to step up and speak out, tell and get involved. Children learn when to tell, who to tell and what happens when that fails.
WHY: A Commitment To Community - USA Martial Arts | Nottingham Sword & Shield Security Bodyguard Training

Founder John Nottingham claims that he believes this program is unique in that it is the only researched based bullying prevention program that is designed by professional protectors. At the core of the program is protecting life from abuse.

WHEN: Bullying Prevention Training for Children By Appointment

To get your child BULLY and VICTIM PROOFED and earn his or her BULLY PROOF VEST, parents can contact Nottingham’s USA Martial Arts School in Phoenix. You will need to set an appointment in advance or bring them to his Confidence Building Kids Summer Camp. You can learn more at the website or the Arizona Bullying Prevention blog.

WHERE: Bullying Prevention Training Phoenix

Arizona Bullying Intervention Initiative
USA Martial Arts Phoenix
4731 E. Greenway Rd Suite 9-10
Phoenix, Arizona 85032
Telephone 602.896.8721

Arizona Bullying Prevention blog
USA Martial Arts Website

Encouraging the good, the noble, the powerful and positive in children. 

Here is the blog dedicated to the subject of bullying in Arizona. Parents, teachers and children can find information, statistics and resources to arm them with knowledge and techniques to successfully deal with bullying.

Bully Proof Vest - Bully Solutions Workshops & Kids Camps

Free Bully / Victim Proofing workshop by appointment at USA Martial Arts Phoenix at Tatum & Greenway in Phoenix/Scottsdale/PV. To register, simply email or call 602-896-8721. It's fully sponsored by Nottingham Sword & Shield Security/ and USA Martial Arts Phoenix.

Wednesday, March 23, 2011

Got a Bullying Problem? We Can Help You Stop The Bully

Got a Bullying Problem? We Can Help You Stop The Bully
By John Nottingham, EPS The Bullying Prevention Project Bullying Intervention Initiative
Watch Bully Help Video
Got a Bullying Problem You Need Help With? We Can Help You With Your Bullying Problem and Show You That There Is Hope!

Does another kid push, poke, hit, pinch, punch, trip or threaten you? Does a kid harass you and say mean things over and over?  If so, you may have a bullying problem.

Does someone bug you, tease you, call you names, leave you out, or spread rumors about you? You may have a bullying problem. The good news is that you are not alone.  Lots of other kids have been in your shoes. Never fear, you can stand up to bullies if you know what to do.

  •  Try to talk it out. Say, “Why are you being mean to me?”  or "Stop, I don't like that."
  •  Get away and stay away from the bully.
  •  Speak up. Say, “Stop picking on me!” and do it with confidence and eye contact.
  •  Make a joke. If you say something funny, even about yourself, the bully might laugh and forget to pick on you.
  •  Buddy up and stay with your friends.
  •  Ask a parent, teacher or adult for help.

Be a Friend!  Be a Hero!
Do you know someone who has a bully? Well, you can help. Did you know that most of the time when a kid steps in bullying stops? 

Here are some things you can do to help someone else being bullied.
- If you see someone being picked on, be a friend and walk away from the bully together.
- If you have a friend who bullies, take a stand and tell your friend to stop 
- If you know someone that gets picked on, ask the kid to play with you.
- Get your friends to come with you when you help someone being bullied.

If someone is hurting a kid, tell an adult.

Watch a Free Bully Video Here from our friend McGruff

USA Martial Arts is hosting Bully Prevention Workshops once again help combat the ever-changing problem faced by our children. Come join us for this FREE presentation. Email or call 602-896-8721 for more info and to sign up. You must be pre-registered to attend. We look forward to seeing all of you there. Bring a friend!

* Source: with modifications from John Nottingham

USA Martial Arts Phoenix Website
Kids Love Martial Arts Phoenix ONILINE SPECIAL
4731 East Greenway Road Suite 9
Phoenix, Arizona 85032
Telephone 602-896-8721
Sponsored by USA Martial Arts and Nottingham Sword and Shield Security |

Thursday, March 17, 2011

The Arizona Bullying Intervention Initiative | The AZ Bullying Prevention Project

The Arizona Bullying Intervention Initiative | The Arizona Bullying Prevention Project - Peaceful, Positive Persuasion | Encouraging Respect, a "Hero Culture" and Protector Mindset Prompted by Empathy

A Program Developed by Professional Protectors with research from Olweus, Dr. George Thompson "Verbal Judo", Dr. Terence Webster-Doyle, Israel (Izzy) C. Kalman, MS, Gavin de Becker, and professional bodyguards.

The Arizona Bullying Prevention Project provides evidence-based life skills training incorporating advanced threat assessment tools, evacuation techniques, physical intervention strategies, and tactical communication in an encouraging and entertaining format.

Bully-Proof Vest Program - The Only Bullying Prevention Program Developed by Protection Professionals.

Attention Arizona Parents:
Your child may be a target for bullying but they do not have to be a victim.  Unlike other programs promoting "anti-bully" themes in which children are labeled weak self pitying "victims", our program promotes individual responsibility, "hero culture", empowerment and learning skills that can help a child for life. Plus we teach it in a fun, memorable manner.  There is hope! 

-  Our three pronged Bullying Intervention approach treats the targeted child of bullying, the bullying behavior as well as the social environment enabling bullying. 

-  Our 5 step How to Turn a Bully into a Buddy process encourages strong social skills, confidence building and uses common sense before self defense. Unlike other programs, we'll actually show your child simple and effective "last resort" defensive techniques in case they are physically attacked.

-  Children enjoy the exciting martial arts format and learn that they can avoid a fight and still walk away with dignity like a Black Belt.

-  Children learn the 3 Shields Strategy and "Bullying Word Blocks" from Verbal Judo, using humor, fear management skills.

-  Other children learn the value of being a "Hallway Hero" and "Protector Pal"

-  This AZ Bullying Prevention Program avoids the political labeling and the failing mindset of "BAD BULLY", "HELPLESS VICTIM" and reveals the danger posed to children in having politically motivated "zero tolerance" policies that lack common sense. The research will shock you.

- Unlike other Bully programs, this one is first designed to protect children, rather than first protect the schools and administrators from legal liability (although it will do that too).

- Prevents blame shifting from children, parents, teachers and school administration by promoting responsibility, communication, mutual respect and common sense problem solving.

- Gives hurting people the help, compassion and resources they need to change it.

For more information contact:


What is Bullying?

Dan Olweus, creator of the Olweus Bullying Prevention Program, provides us with this commonly accepted definition for bullying in his book, Bullying at School: What We Know and What We Can Do:

"A person is bullied when he or she is exposed, repeatedly and over time, to negative actions on the part of one or more other persons, and he or she has difficulty defending himself or herself."

This definition includes three important components:

1. Bullying is aggressive behavior that involves unwanted, negative actions.

2. Bullying involves a pattern of behavior repeated over time.

3. Bullying involves an imbalance of power or strength.

Types of Bullying

Bullying can take on many forms. As part of the Olweus Bullying Questionnaire, students are asked if they have been bullied in any of these nine ways:

1. Verbal bullying including derogatory comments and bad names

2. Bullying through social exclusion or isolation

3. Physical bullying such as hitting, kicking, shoving, and spitting

4. Bullying through lies and false rumors

5. Having money or other things taken or damaged by students who bully

6. Being threatened or being forced to do things by students who bully

7. Racial bullying

8. Sexual bullying

9. Cyber bullying (via cell phone or Internet) Learn more

Why Students Bully

Information about bullying suggests that there are three interrelated reasons why students bully.

1. Students who bully have strong needs for power and (negative) dominance.

2. Students who bully find satisfaction in causing injury and suffering to other


3. Students who bully are often rewarded in some way for their behavior with

material or psychological rewards.

Impact of Bullying

A single student who bullies can have a wide-ranging impact on the students they bully, students who observe bullying, and the overall climate of the school and community.

Students Who are Bullied - Students deserve to feel safe at school. But when they experience bullying, these types of effects can last long into their future:

  • Depression 
  • Low self-esteem 
  • Health problems 
  • Poor grades 
  • Suicidal thoughts 

Students Who Bully Others - Students who intentionally bully others should be held accountable for their actions. Those who bully their peers are also more likely than those students who do not bully others to *:

  • Get into frequent fights 
  • Steal and vandalize property 
  • Drink alcohol and smoke 
  • Report poor grades 
  • Perceive a negative climate at school 
  • Carry a weapon 

* Not all students who bully others have obvious behavior problems or are engaged in rule-breaking activities, however. Some of them are highly skilled socially and good at ingratiating themselves with their teacher and other adults. This is true of some boys who bully but is perhaps even more common among bullying girls. For this reason it is often difficult for adults to discover or even imagine that these students engage in bullying behavior.

Observers of Bullying - Students who see bullying happen also may feel that they are in an unsafe environment. Effects may include feeling:

  • Fearful 
  • Powerless to act 
  • Guilty for not acting 
  • Tempted to participate 

Schools with Bullying Issues - When bullying continues and a school does not take action, the entire school climate can be affected in the following ways:

  • The school develops an environment of fear and disrespect 
  • Students have difficulty learning 
  • Students feel insecure 
  • Students dislike school 
  • Students perceive that teachers and staff have little control and don't care about them 

Find out how the Olweus Bullying Prevention Program addresses the issues surrounding bullying and provides Benefits for Schoolsand Benefits for Other Institutions.

Bullying is a Serious Issue

Bullying may vary greatly between schools and school districts, but it is very prevalent:
Statistics show that 23 percent of students in grades 4-6 had been bullied "several times" or more; 20 percent had bullied others (1998 study of 6,500 students in rural South Carolina) 
Statistics show that 17 percent of students in grades 6-10 reported having been bullied "sometimes" or more, with 8 percent being bullied once a week. 19 percent said they had been a bully to others "sometimes" or more. (2001 study of 15,000 U.S. students) 

The Bullying Circle

Nearly one in five students in an average classroom is experiencing bullying in some way. The rest of the students, called bystanders, are also affected by the bullying.1

The Olweus Bullying Prevention Program describes students involved or witnessing a bullying situation as having roles in the Bullying Circle2:

1C. Salmivalli, K. Lagerspetz, K. Björkqvist, K. Osterman, and A. Kaukiainen, "Bullying as a Group Process: Participant Roles and Their Relations to Social Status within the Group," Aggressive Behavior 22 (1996): 1-15.

2Dan Olweus, "Peer Harassment: A Critical Analysis and Some Important Issues," in Peer Harassment in School, ed. J. Juvonen and S. Graham (New York: Guilford Publications, 2001): 3-20.

Research Basis for the Olweus Bullying Prevention Program
  • The first evaluation of the program took place in the early-to-mid 1980s and involved approximately 2,500 children in grades 4-7 from 42 elementary and junior high schools in Bergen, Norway (equivalent to grades 5-8 in the U.S.). Using a quasi-experimental (age-cohorts) design, Olweus (1991; Olweus, Limber, & Mihalic, 1999) found:
    • substantial reductions (50% or more for most comparisons by students’ age and grade) in self-reported bullying and bully victimization.
    • significant reductions in self-reported vandalism, fighting, theft, alcohol use, and truancy.
    • significant improvements in the social climate of the classroom (as reflected in students’ reports of increased satisfaction with school life and school work, improved order and discipline at school, and more positive social relationships)
    • a dosage-response relationship at the classroom level, such that those classrooms that implemented essential components of the program saw greater reductions in bully/victim problems.
  • The New Bergen Project Against Bullying took place between 1997 and 1998 and involved 3,200 students in grades 5-7 and 9 from 14 intervention and 16 comparison schools in Bergen, Norway. Olweus and colleagues (Olweus, 2004; Olweus et al., 1999) found:
    • Reductions in the implementation schools of bully/victim problems of 21%-38%.
    • No significant changes in comparison schools in reports of being bullied and a 35% increase in the level of bullying other students
  • The Oslo Project Against Bullying (which began in 1999) involved 2,300 students in grades 5-7 and 9. Within one year, among 5-7th graders, Olweus (Olweus, 2004) found:
    • Reductions in self-reports of bully victimization of 42% (33% for girls and 48% for boys)
    • Reductions in self-reported bullying others of 52% (64% for girls and 45% for boys)
  • The first systematic evaluation of the Olweus Bullying Prevention Program in the United States (Limber et al., 2004) was conducted in the mid-1990s, involving 18 middle schools in South Carolina. After one year of implementation, researchers observed:
    • Large, significant decreases in boys’ and girls’ reports of bullying others
    • Large, significant decreases in boys’ reports of being bullied and in boys’ reports of social isolation.
  • An evaluation of the Olweus program in 12 elementary schools in the Philadelphia area (Black, 2003) revealed that among those schools that had implemented the program with at least moderate fidelity:
    • There were significant reductions in self-reported bullying and victimization
    • There were significant decreases in adults’ observations of bullying (in the cafeteria and on the playground)
Black, S. (2003). An ongoing evaluation of the bullying prevention program in Philadelphia schools: Student survey and student observation data. Paper presented at Centers for Disease Control’s Safety in Numbers Conference, Atlanta, GA.
Limber, S. P. (2004b). Implementation of the Olweus Bullying Prevention Program: Lessons Learned from the Field. In D. Espelage & S. Swearer (Eds.) Bullying in American Schools: A Social-Ecological Perspective on Prevention and Intervention (pp. 351-363). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Olweus, D. (1991). Bully/victim problems among schoolchildren: Basic facts and effects of a school based intervention program. In D. J. Pepler & K. H. Rubin (Eds.), The development and treatment of childhood aggression (pp. 411-448). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Olweus, D. (1993). Bullying at school: What we know and what we can do. Cambridge: Blackwell.
Olweus, D. (2004). The Olweus Bullying Prevention Programme: Design and implementation issues and a new national initiative in Norway. In P. K. Smith, D. Pepler, & K. Rigby (Eds.),Bullying in schools: How successful can interventions be? (pp. 13-36). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Olweus, D., Limber, S. P., & Mihalic, S. (1999). The Bullying Prevention Program: Blueprints for Violence Prevention, Vol. 10. Center for the Study and Prevention of Violence: Boulder, CO.

Encouraging the good, the noble, the powerful and positive in children. 

Here is the blog dedicated to the subject of bullying in Arizona. Parents, teachers and children can find information, statistics and resources to arm them with knowledge and techniques to successfully deal with bullying.

Bully Proof Vest - Bully Solutions Workshops & Kids Camps
Free Bully / Victim Proofing workshop by appointment at USA Martial Arts Phoenix at Tatum & Greenway in Phoenix/Scottsdale/PV. To register, simply email or call 602-896-8721. It's fully sponsored by Nottingham Sword & Shield Security/ and USA Martial Arts Phoenix.